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Dr. Muddassir Iqbal
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemistry

SNS
National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)
School of Natural Sciences, H-12, Islamabad
Tel : +92-300-6005249; +9251 9085 5575

Specialization
Organic Synthesis, Nuclear waste processing

Education
Ph.D Chemistry(University of Twente,Netherlands)

Edation:

  1. Ph.D Chemistry,October 2012,MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology University of Twente, The Netherlands.
  2. M.Phil Chemistry, Jan 2009 ,University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
  3. M.Sc Chemistry, 2005, University of Sargodha,Pakistan.

Honour and Awards:

  1. HEC Overseas Scholarship for PhD study
  2. 3rd Position in University during MSc study
  3. Merit Scholarship during Elementary and High School

Positions Held:

  1. Lecturer at Dar-e-Arqam Model College Sargodha, Pakistan,Jan 2006 - Jan 2007.
  2. Assistant Professor at University of Sargodha, Pakistan,Nov 2012 to Oct 2014.
  3. Assistant Professor at National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan,Oct 2014 to date.

​ 

Research Interests:

  1. Organic synthesis
  2. Computational Chemistry
  3. Nuclear waste treatment
  4. Synthesis of metal selective ligands
  5. Task specific ionic liquids
  6. Formation of complexes for various application

Research Projects:

Research project entitled “Development of Novel Ligands for Gold and Actinides Extraction” worth 0.5 million funded by HEC is in progress.

Research ​Publications:

 

S/No

​Reference
​1. M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and Am/Eu extraction of novel TODGA derivatives, Supramol. Chem. 2010,  22, 827. (I.F = 2.132)
​2.

​M. R. S. A. Janjua, Z. M. Su, W. Guan, A. Irfan, S. Muhammad, and M. Iqbal, A DFT study on the electronic and redox properties of [X8V14O50]n– (X = SiIV, GeIV, PV, and AsV), Can. J. Chem. 2010, 88, 434. (I.F = 1.013)

​3. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and V. K. Manchanda, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide for actinide extraction: Solvent extraction and SLM transport studies, J. Membr. Sci. 2011, 375, 141. (I.F = 4.908)
​4. ​M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and evaluation of novel water-soluble ligands for the complexation of metals during the partitioning of actinides, New J. Chem. 2011, 35, 2591. (I.F = 3.159)
​5. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and S. V. Godbole, Complexation of novel diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes: Unusual extraction behaviour, transport, and fluorescence studies, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 360. (I.F = 4.097)
​6. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, A highly efficient solvent system containing functionalized diglycolamides and an ionic liquid for americium recovery from radioactive wastes, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 6970. (I.F = 4.097)
​7. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Unusual transport behaviour of actinide ions with a novel calix[4]arene-tetra-diglycolamide (C4DGA) extractant as the carrier, J. Membr. Sci. 2012, 411-412, 64. (I.F = 4.908)
​8. ​M. Iqbal, P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Preorganisation of TODGA on tripodal and calix[4]arene platforms for efficient separation of An(III) from nuclear waste streams, Tetrahedron 2012, 68, 7840. (I.F = 2.817)
​9. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, J. Huskens and S. V. Godbole, Extraction of Am(III) using  a tripodal diglycolamide in room temperature ionic liquids: A ‘green’ approach for radioactive waste processing, RSC Advances 2012, 2, 7492. (I.F = 3.708)
​10. ​M. Iqbal, R. G. Struijk, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, A. Wilden, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and evaluation of ligands with mixed amide and phosphonate, phosphinoxide, and phosphonothioate sites for An(III)/Ln(III) extraction, New J. Chem. 2012,  36, 2048. (I.F = 3.159)
​11. ​S. D. Reilly, A. J. Gaunt, B. L. Scott, G. Modolo, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, and M. J. Sarsfield, Plutonium(IV) complexation by diglycolamide ligands - coordination chemistry insight into TODGA-based actinide separations, Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 9732. (I.F = 6.718)
​12. ​X. Wang, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Off-on fluorescent chemosensor for Hg2+ based on bis(rhodamine) in aqueous solution, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16822. (I.F = 2.339)
​13. ​S. A. Ansari, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, and J. Huskens, Novel diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes for actinide extraction and supported liquid membrane studies: Role of substituents in the pendent arms and mass transfer modeling, J. Membr. Sci. 2013, 430, 304. (I.F = 4.908)
​14. ​A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and P. K. Mohapatra, Highly efficient diglycolamide-based task-specific ionic liquids: synthesis, unusual extraction behaviour, irradiation, and fluorescence studies, Chem. Eur. J. 2013, 19, 3230. (I.F = 5.696)
​15. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes for efficient extraction of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: Role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy and thermodynamic studies, Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 2533. (I.F = 4.794)
​16. ​P. K. Mohapatra, P. Kandwal, M. Iqbal, M. S. Murali, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, A novel CMPO-functionalized task specific ionic liquid: Synthesis, extraction and spectroscopic investigations of actinide and lanthanide complexes, Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 4343. (I.F = 4.097)
​17. ​D. R. Raut, P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, S. V. Godbole, M. Iqbal, D. Manna, T. K. Ghantc, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Complexation of Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides with Several Novel Diglycolamide Functionalized Calix[4]arenes: Solvent extraction, Luminescence and Theoretical Studies, RSC advances 2013, 3, 9296. (I.F = 3.708)
​18. ​P. K. Mohapatra, A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, S. V. Godbole, and W. Verboom, Remarkable acidity independent actinide extraction with a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene, Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 8558. (I.F = 4.097)
​19. ​P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Rout, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, A comparative evaluation of the liquid-liquid extraction and pertraction efficiency of a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene with analogous upper and lower-rim calixarenes for actinide separations, J. Membr. Sci. 2013, 444, 268. (I.F = 4.908)
​20. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, A diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) for actinide extraction: Solvent extraction, thermodynamics and radiolytic stability studies, Sep. Purif. Technol. 2013, 118, 264. (I.F = 3.065)
​21. ​A. Sengupta, P. K.Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Role of organic diluent on actinide ion extraction using a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene, Supramol. Chem. 2013, 25, 688. (I.F = 2.132)
​22. ​V. Chavan, V. Thekkethil, A. K. Pandey, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, S. S. Meena, A. Goswami, and W. Verboom, Assembled diglycolamide for f-element ions sequestration at high acidity, React. Funct. Polym. 2014, 74, 52. (I.F = 2.822)
​23. ​A. Sengupta, S. V. Godbole, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, Judd-Ofelt parameters of diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene Eu3+ complexes in room temperature ionic liquid for structural analysis: Effects of solvents and ligand stereochemistry, J. Lumin. 2014, 148, 174. (I.F = 2.367)
​24. ​A. Wilden, G. Modolo, S. Lange, F. Sadowski, B. B. Beele, A. Skerencak, P. J. Panak, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, A. Geist, Evaluation of Modified Diglycolamides for the An(III) + Ln(III) co-separation by Solvent Extraction and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Solv. Extr. Ion Exch. 2014, 32, 119. (I.F = 1.581)
​25. ​P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Raut, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Evaluation of several multiple diglycolamide-functionalizedcalix[4]arene ligands for the isolation of carrier free 90Y from 90Sr,  Appl. Radiat. Isot. 2014, 85, 133. (I.F = 1.056)
​26. ​P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, First report on a diglycolamide-grafted resin material: Synthesis, Characterization and Actinide Uptake Studies, RSC Advances 2014, 4, 10412. (I.F = 3.708)
​27. ​S. A. Ansari1, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Two novel extraction chromatography resins  containing multiple DGA functionalized ligands: preparation, characterization and actinide uptake properties, J. Chromatogr. A. 2014, 1334, 79. (I.F = 4.258)
​28.

​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Solvent systems containing diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes in room temperature ionic liquids for metal ion extraction: Studies with simulated high level wastes, Supramol. Chem. 2014, 26, 612. (I.F = 2.132)

​29. ​P. K. Mohapatra, A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Spectroscopic investigation of Eu3+ complexes with ligands containing multiple diglycolamide pendent arms in a room temperature ionic liquid, J. Lumin. 2014, 154, 392. (I.F = 2.367)
​30. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, R. M. Kadam, D. Manna, T. K. Ghanty, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquids for nuclear waste remediation? Extraction, luminescence, theoretical and EPR investigations, RSC advances. 2014, 4, 46613. (I.F = 3.708)
​31. ​S. A. Ansari, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Sorption of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitric acid solutions by a novel diglycolamide-grafted silica-based resins: Part 2. Sorption isotherms, column and radiolytic stability studies, Radiochim Acta, 2014, 102, 903. (I.F = 1.411)
​32. V. Chavan, S. Patra, A. K. Pandey, V. Thekkethil, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, D. Sen, S. Mazumder, A. Goswami, W. Verboom, Understanding nitric acid induced changes in the arrangement of monomeric and polymeric methacryloyl diglycolamides on their affinity towards f-element ions, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2015, 119, 212. (I.F = 3.377)
33. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Extracted species of Np (IV) complex with diglycolamide functionalized task specific ionic liquid: diffusion, kinetics and thermodynamics by cyclic voltammetry, J radioanal nucl chem. 2015, 304, 563 (I.F = 1.415).
34. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Np(IV) complex with task-specific ionic liquid based on CMPO: first cyclic voltammetric study, Monatsh Chem. 2015, 146, 1815 (I.F = 1.347).
35. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, An insight into the complexation of UO22+ with diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid: Kinetic, cyclic  voltammetric, extraction and spectroscopic investigations, Polyhedron 2015, 102, 549 (I.F = 2.011).
​36. T. Mehmood, L. Nawaz, M. Iqbal, S. A. Malik, A. S. Khan, F. Saddique, Q. Tabassam, Evaluation of Climatic and Topographical Effects on Bioactive compounds and Mineral Profiles of Two Selected Samples of Cauliflower, J. Biochem. Biotech. and biometerials 2016, 1, 58.​
​37. P.K. Mohapatra, D.R. Raut, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Separation of carrier-free 90Y from 90Sr using flat sheet supported liquid membranes containing multiple diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes, Supramol. Chem. 2016, 28, 360.  (I.F = 2.394).​
​38. M. A. Shaheen, R. Akram, A. Karim, T. Mehmood, R. Farooq, S. Iqbal, M. Iqbal, Sequestering Potential of Peach Nut Shells as an Efficient Sorbent for Some Toxic Metal Ions from Aqueous Media: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study, Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2016,  17, 77.​
​39. ​F. Zia, N. Ghafoor, M. Iqbal, S. Mehboob, Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using Cydonia Oblonga Seed Extract, Applied nanoscience, 2016, 6, 1023.
​40. ​M. A. Shaheen, M. N. Islam, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, R. Farooq, M. Iqbal, Sequestering Attributes Of Typha Latifolia As A Low Cost Biosorbentfor The Removal Of Reactive Dye (Db-K2rl) From Aqueous Media, Pakistan Journal of Science, 2016, 68, 406.
​41. ​M. A. Shaheen, N. Bibi, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, M. Iqbal, R. Farooq, Chemo-thermal Treatment of Tribulus tresstris to Enhance Its Sequestering Potential for Adsorption of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Media: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study, Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2016,  17, 124.
​42. ​T. Mehmood, S. Bashir, F. Siddique, M. Iqbal, Z. Jabeen and H. Arshad, Evaluation of climatic and geographical effects on bioactive compounds and minerals profile of two selected samples of white turnip, Pure Appl. Biol., 2017, 6, 317.
​43. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, P. Pathak,  T. K. Ghanty, M. Iqbal  and  W. Verboom, Studies on neptunium complexation with CMPO- and diglycolamide-functionalized ionic liquids: experimental and computational studies, New J Chem, 2017, 41, 836.
​44. ​T. Mehmood, L. Jabeen, M. Iqbal, S. A. Malik, M. Z. Majeed, F. Siddique, Z. Jabeen, Q. Tabassam, F. Jabbar, M. Q. Hayat, Variation in bioactive composition, antioxidant attributes and antimicrobial potential of grewia asiatica in relation to solvent system and drying techniques, Oxid. Commun. 2017, 40, 624.
​45. ​T. Mehmood, S. Fareed, M. Iqbal, A. Naseem and F. Siddique, Utilization of Agro-waste and Non-conventional Eruca sativa Seed Oil for Getting Optimized Process to Acquire Better Yield of Biodiesel by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Chiang Mai J Sci., In press
​46. ​M. Abbas, M. Iqbal, A. Aslam, S. Bashir, J. Kressler, Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Bis-(phathalimido)-piperazine and Derivatives: A new Class of Bioactive Molecules with Enhanced Safety and Efficacies, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, (Accepted).
​47. ​B. Rafique, A. Khalid, K. Akhtar, M. Iqbal, Metronidazole interaction with DNA analyzed by electrochemical DNA biosensor, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic methods, Bioelectrochemistry, (under review)
​48. ​T. Mehmood, A. Naseem, M. Iqbal, M. M. Ahmad, Z. Fatima, Agrowaste and Underutilized Jatropha curcas Vegetable Seed Oil Use for Obtaining Maximal Process to get High Quality Yield of Biodiesel through Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Chiang Mai J Sci., (under review)
​49. ​M. A. Shaheen, M. Aziz, M. Saleem, M. Tahir, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, M. Iqbal, Synthesis and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) with Schiff Base Derived from 5-Aminosalicylic acid and o-Vanillin, J. Biolog inorg Chem. (submitted)

 

Conference proceedings: 

S/No ​Reference
​1. P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Raut, V. K. Manchanda, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide for Am (III) extraction: solvent extraction and SLM transport studies, Proceedings of DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2011, 42, 292-293.
​2. ​P.K. Mohapatra, D.R. Raut, V.K. Manchanda, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide ligand for carrier free 90Y separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India), 2011, 479-80.
​3. ​S. A. Ansari, P.K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Novel Calix [4] arene Functionalized Diglycolamides for Separation of Actinides: Supported Liquid Membrane Studies, Procedia Engineering 2012, 44, 959-960.
​4. ​S. A. Ansari, P.K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Highly efficient binding to trivalent F-elements from acidic media with novel Calix[4]arene containing diglycolamide arms, Proceedings of DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2012, 44, 86.
​5. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W Verboom, Structurally modified diglycolamide-functionalized calixarenes in room temperature ionic liquid for actinide extraction, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2013, 44, 285-286.
​6. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W Verboom, Actinide extraction using two novel task specific ionic liquids, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2013, 44, 283-284.
​7. ​A. Wilden, G. Modolo, S. Lange, F. Sadowski, D. Bosbach, B. B. Beele, P. J. Panak, A. Skerencak-Frech, A. Geist, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studie, American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60526, 2013, 1633.
​8. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Separation of lanthanides and actinides from simulated high level waste using diglycolamide-functionalized Calix[4]arene, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS fifth symposium on nuclear analytical chemistry, 2014, 418-419.
​9. ​A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Electrochemical study on the complexation of UO22+ with DGA-TSIL-Br in C8 mimBr, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2014, 175.
​10. ​A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Electrochemical study on the complexation of UO22+ with DGA-TSIL-Br in C8 mimBr, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2014, 175.
​11. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Study on Eu 3+-CDGA complex in room temperature ionic liquid, effects of media and structural modification of CDGA by fluorescence spectroscopy, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS twelfth biennial Trombay symposium on radiation and photochemistry, 2014, 45, 70-71.

 

Poster presentations:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. Synthesis of New Potential Ligands for the Partitioning of Nuclear Waste, Chains Chemistry as Innovating science, 28-30 November 2011, DeFabrique, Maarssen, Netherlands.
​2. ​Development of novel ligands for complexing An(III)/ Ln(III) for nuclear waste treatment, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 27th, 2011. Enschede, Netherlands.
​3. ​On the way to selective ligands for An(III)/Ln(III) separation in nuclear waste, Design and Synthesis Structure and Reactivity Biomolecular Chemistry, NWO, Gebied Chemische Wetenschappen, October 25-27, 2010, Lunteren, Netherlands.
​4. ​On the way to selective ligands for An(III)/Ln(III) separation in nuclear waste, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 14, 2010, Enschede, Netherlands.
​5. ​Synthesis of Am3+Ligands for Nuclear Waste Treatment, Design and Synthesis Structure and Reactivity Biomolecular Chemistry, NWO, Gebied Chemische Wetenschappen, October 19-21, 2009, Lunteren, Netherlands.
​6. ​Synthesis of Am3+Ligands for Nuclear Waste Treatment, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 21st, 2009, Enschede, Netherlands.

 

Oral presentation:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. Synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for nuclear waste treatment, Meeting Program of the KNCV "Organic Chemistry Division" and the NWO-CW study groups "Design & Synthesis", "Structure & Reactivity" and "Bio molecular Chemistry", April 7, 2010. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
​2.

Synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the partitioning of nuclear waste, Multivalency in Chemistry and Supramolecular Chemistry, MESA+ / SFB 765 Mini-Symposium, Freie University Berlin,  5th June, 2012, Berlin, Germany

 

Conferences/Symposiums/Workshops:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. International Conference on Bio-Energy: “Bio-hydrogen, bio-methane as alternative fuel and its conversion inti CNG from waste water” August 26 -27, 2014, Organized by Government of Punjab, Umeed Foundation and PCSIR Labs. Lahore, LCCI at Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Lahore-Pakistan. (participant)
​2. ​One-Day Symposium titled “Green Chemistry: An Innovative Route to Sustainable Scientific Developments” April 30, 2014, Organized by Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. (participant and Organizering secretary)
​3. ​One-Day seminar “Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Chemistry, Recent Developments and Future Prospects”, March 20, 2013, Organized by Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. (participant)
​4. ​Workshop on "Biodiesel Technology: Processing, Potential Feedstock, Future Prospects and Challenges"  November 5-6, 2012, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)
​5. ​Workshop on “Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals for Development” November 20-21, 2007, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)
​6. Workshop on "Biodiesel Technology: Processing, Potential Feedstock, Future Prospects and Challenges"  November 5-6, 2012, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)​
​7. ​Workshop on “Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals for Development” November 20-21, 2007, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)​