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Dr. Muddassir Iqbal
Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry

SNS
National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)
School of Natural Sciences, H-12, Islamabad
Tel : +92-300-6005249; +9251 9085 5575

Specialization
Organic Synthesis, Nuclear waste processing

Education
Ph.D Chemistry(University of Twente,Netherlands)

Edation:

  1. Ph.D Chemistry,October 2012,MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology University of Twente, The Netherlands.
  2. M.Phil Chemistry, Jan 2009 ,University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
  3. M.Sc Chemistry, 2005, University of Sargodha,Pakistan.

Honour and Awards:

  1. HEC Overseas Scholarship for PhD study
  2. 3rd Position in University during MSc study
  3. Merit Scholarship during Elementary and High School

Positions Held:

  1. Lecturer at Dar-e-Arqam Model College Sargodha, Pakistan,Jan 2006 - Jan 2007.
  2. Assistant Professor at University of Sargodha, Pakistan,Nov 2012 to Oct 2014.
  3. Assistant Professor at National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan,Oct 2014 to date.

Research Interests:

  1. Organic synthesis
  2. Computational Chemistry
  3. Nuclear waste treatment
  4. Synthesis of metal selective ligands
  5. Task specific ionic liquids
  6. Formation of complexes for various application

Research Projects:

Research project entitled “Development of Novel Ligands for Gold and Actinides Extraction” worth 0.5 million funded by HEC is in progress.

Research ​Publications:

 

S/No

​Reference
​1. M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and Am/Eu extraction of novel TODGA derivatives, Supramol. Chem. 2010,  22, 827. (I.F = 2.132)
​2.

​M. R. S. A. Janjua, Z. M. Su, W. Guan, A. Irfan, S. Muhammad, and M. Iqbal, A DFT study on the electronic and redox properties of [X8V14O50]n– (X = SiIV, GeIV, PV, and AsV), Can. J. Chem. 2010, 88, 434. (I.F = 1.013)

​3. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and V. K. Manchanda, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide for actinide extraction: Solvent extraction and SLM transport studies, J. Membr. Sci. 2011, 375, 141. (I.F = 4.908)
​4. ​M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and evaluation of novel water-soluble ligands for the complexation of metals during the partitioning of actinides, New J. Chem. 2011, 35, 2591. (I.F = 3.159)
​5. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and S. V. Godbole, Complexation of novel diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes: Unusual extraction behaviour, transport, and fluorescence studies, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 360. (I.F = 4.097)
​6. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, A highly efficient solvent system containing functionalized diglycolamides and an ionic liquid for americium recovery from radioactive wastes, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 6970. (I.F = 4.097)
​7. ​P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, D. R. Raut, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Unusual transport behaviour of actinide ions with a novel calix[4]arene-tetra-diglycolamide (C4DGA) extractant as the carrier, J. Membr. Sci. 2012, 411-412, 64. (I.F = 4.908)
​8. ​M. Iqbal, P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Preorganisation of TODGA on tripodal and calix[4]arene platforms for efficient separation of An(III) from nuclear waste streams, Tetrahedron 2012, 68, 7840. (I.F = 2.817)
​9. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, J. Huskens and S. V. Godbole, Extraction of Am(III) using  a tripodal diglycolamide in room temperature ionic liquids: A ‘green’ approach for radioactive waste processing, RSC Advances 2012, 2, 7492. (I.F = 3.708)
​10. ​M. Iqbal, R. G. Struijk, J. Huskens, M. Sypula, A. Wilden, G. Modolo, and W. Verboom, Synthesis and evaluation of ligands with mixed amide and phosphonate, phosphinoxide, and phosphonothioate sites for An(III)/Ln(III) extraction, New J. Chem. 2012,  36, 2048. (I.F = 3.159)
​11. ​S. D. Reilly, A. J. Gaunt, B. L. Scott, G. Modolo, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, and M. J. Sarsfield, Plutonium(IV) complexation by diglycolamide ligands - coordination chemistry insight into TODGA-based actinide separations, Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 9732. (I.F = 6.718)
​12. ​X. Wang, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Off-on fluorescent chemosensor for Hg2+ based on bis(rhodamine) in aqueous solution, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 16822. (I.F = 2.339)
​13. ​S. A. Ansari, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, and J. Huskens, Novel diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes for actinide extraction and supported liquid membrane studies: Role of substituents in the pendent arms and mass transfer modeling, J. Membr. Sci. 2013, 430, 304. (I.F = 4.908)
​14. ​A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, J. Huskens, and P. K. Mohapatra, Highly efficient diglycolamide-based task-specific ionic liquids: synthesis, unusual extraction behaviour, irradiation, and fluorescence studies, Chem. Eur. J. 2013, 19, 3230. (I.F = 5.696)
​15. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes for efficient extraction of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: Role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy and thermodynamic studies, Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 2533. (I.F = 4.794)
​16. ​P. K. Mohapatra, P. Kandwal, M. Iqbal, M. S. Murali, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, A novel CMPO-functionalized task specific ionic liquid: Synthesis, extraction and spectroscopic investigations of actinide and lanthanide complexes, Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 4343. (I.F = 4.097)
​17. ​D. R. Raut, P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, S. V. Godbole, M. Iqbal, D. Manna, T. K. Ghantc, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, Complexation of Trivalent Lanthanides and Actinides with Several Novel Diglycolamide Functionalized Calix[4]arenes: Solvent extraction, Luminescence and Theoretical Studies, RSC advances 2013, 3, 9296. (I.F = 3.708)
​18. ​P. K. Mohapatra, A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, S. V. Godbole, and W. Verboom, Remarkable acidity independent actinide extraction with a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene, Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 8558. (I.F = 4.097)
​19. ​P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Rout, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, A comparative evaluation of the liquid-liquid extraction and pertraction efficiency of a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene with analogous upper and lower-rim calixarenes for actinide separations, J. Membr. Sci. 2013, 444, 268. (I.F = 4.908)
​20. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, A diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) for actinide extraction: Solvent extraction, thermodynamics and radiolytic stability studies, Sep. Purif. Technol. 2013, 118, 264. (I.F = 3.065)
​21. ​A. Sengupta, P. K.Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Role of organic diluent on actinide ion extraction using a both-side diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene, Supramol. Chem. 2013, 25, 688. (I.F = 2.132)
​22. ​V. Chavan, V. Thekkethil, A. K. Pandey, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, S. S. Meena, A. Goswami, and W. Verboom, Assembled diglycolamide for f-element ions sequestration at high acidity, React. Funct. Polym. 2014, 74, 52. (I.F = 2.822)
​23. ​A. Sengupta, S. V. Godbole, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens and W. Verboom, Judd-Ofelt parameters of diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene Eu3+ complexes in room temperature ionic liquid for structural analysis: Effects of solvents and ligand stereochemistry, J. Lumin. 2014, 148, 174. (I.F = 2.367)
​24. ​A. Wilden, G. Modolo, S. Lange, F. Sadowski, B. B. Beele, A. Skerencak, P. J. Panak, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, A. Geist, Evaluation of Modified Diglycolamides for the An(III) + Ln(III) co-separation by Solvent Extraction and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Solv. Extr. Ion Exch. 2014, 32, 119. (I.F = 1.581)
​25. ​P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Raut, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Evaluation of several multiple diglycolamide-functionalizedcalix[4]arene ligands for the isolation of carrier free 90Y from 90Sr,  Appl. Radiat. Isot. 2014, 85, 133. (I.F = 1.056)
​26. ​P. K. Mohapatra, S. A. Ansari, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, First report on a diglycolamide-grafted resin material: Synthesis, Characterization and Actinide Uptake Studies, RSC Advances 2014, 4, 10412. (I.F = 3.708)
​27. ​S. A. Ansari1, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Two novel extraction chromatography resins  containing multiple DGA functionalized ligands: preparation, characterization and actinide uptake properties, J. Chromatogr. A. 2014, 1334, 79. (I.F = 4.258)
​28.

​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Solvent systems containing diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes in room temperature ionic liquids for metal ion extraction: Studies with simulated high level wastes, Supramol. Chem. 2014, 26, 612. (I.F = 2.132)

​29. ​P. K. Mohapatra, A. Sengupta, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Spectroscopic investigation of Eu3+ complexes with ligands containing multiple diglycolamide pendent arms in a room temperature ionic liquid, J. Lumin. 2014, 154, 392. (I.F = 2.367)
​30. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, R. M. Kadam, D. Manna, T. K. Ghanty, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquids for nuclear waste remediation? Extraction, luminescence, theoretical and EPR investigations, RSC advances. 2014, 4, 46613. (I.F = 3.708)
​31. ​S. A. Ansari, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Sorption of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitric acid solutions by a novel diglycolamide-grafted silica-based resins: Part 2. Sorption isotherms, column and radiolytic stability studies, Radiochim Acta, 2014, 102, 903. (I.F = 1.411)
​32. V. Chavan, S. Patra, A. K. Pandey, V. Thekkethil, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, D. Sen, S. Mazumder, A. Goswami, W. Verboom, Understanding nitric acid induced changes in the arrangement of monomeric and polymeric methacryloyl diglycolamides on their affinity towards f-element ions, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2015, 119, 212. (I.F = 3.377)
33. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Extracted species of Np (IV) complex with diglycolamide functionalized task specific ionic liquid: diffusion, kinetics and thermodynamics by cyclic voltammetry, J radioanal nucl chem. 2015, 304, 563 (I.F = 1.415).
34. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Np(IV) complex with task-specific ionic liquid based on CMPO: first cyclic voltammetric study, Monatsh Chem. 2015, 146, 1815 (I.F = 1.347).
35. A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, An insight into the complexation of UO22+ with diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid: Kinetic, cyclic  voltammetric, extraction and spectroscopic investigations, Polyhedron 2015, 102, 549 (I.F = 2.011).
​36. T. Mehmood, L. Nawaz, M. Iqbal, S. A. Malik, A. S. Khan, F. Saddique, Q. Tabassam, Evaluation of Climatic and Topographical Effects on Bioactive compounds and Mineral Profiles of Two Selected Samples of Cauliflower, J. Biochem. Biotech. and biometerials 2016, 1, 58.​
​37. P.K. Mohapatra, D.R. Raut, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Separation of carrier-free 90Y from 90Sr using flat sheet supported liquid membranes containing multiple diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes, Supramol. Chem. 2016, 28, 360.  (I.F = 2.394).​
​38. M. A. Shaheen, R. Akram, A. Karim, T. Mehmood, R. Farooq, S. Iqbal, M. Iqbal, Sequestering Potential of Peach Nut Shells as an Efficient Sorbent for Some Toxic Metal Ions from Aqueous Media: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study, Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2016,  17, 77.​
​39. ​F. Zia, N. Ghafoor, M. Iqbal, S. Mehboob, Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using Cydonia Oblonga Seed Extract, Applied nanoscience, 2016, 6, 1023.
​40. ​M. A. Shaheen, M. N. Islam, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, R. Farooq, M. Iqbal, Sequestering Attributes Of Typha Latifolia As A Low Cost Biosorbentfor The Removal Of Reactive Dye (Db-K2rl) From Aqueous Media, Pakistan Journal of Science, 2016, 68, 406.
​41. ​M. A. Shaheen, N. Bibi, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, M. Iqbal, R. Farooq, Chemo-thermal Treatment of Tribulus tresstris to Enhance Its Sequestering Potential for Adsorption of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Media: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study, Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2016,  17, 124.
​42. ​T. Mehmood, S. Bashir, F. Siddique, M. Iqbal, Z. Jabeen and H. Arshad, Evaluation of climatic and geographical effects on bioactive compounds and minerals profile of two selected samples of white turnip, Pure Appl. Biol., 2017, 6, 317.
​43. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, P. Pathak,  T. K. Ghanty, M. Iqbal  and  W. Verboom, Studies on neptunium complexation with CMPO- and diglycolamide-functionalized ionic liquids: experimental and computational studies, New J Chem, 2017, 41, 836.
​44. ​T. Mehmood, L. Jabeen, M. Iqbal, S. A. Malik, M. Z. Majeed, F. Siddique, Z. Jabeen, Q. Tabassam, F. Jabbar, M. Q. Hayat, Variation in bioactive composition, antioxidant attributes and antimicrobial potential of grewia asiatica in relation to solvent system and drying techniques, Oxid. Commun. 2017, 40, 624.
​45. ​T. Mehmood, S. Fareed, M. Iqbal, A. Naseem and F. Siddique, Utilization of Agro-waste and Non-conventional Eruca sativa Seed Oil for Getting Optimized Process to Acquire Better Yield of Biodiesel by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Chiang Mai J Sci., In press
​46. ​M. Abbas, M. Iqbal, A. Aslam, S. Bashir, J. Kressler, Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Bis-(phathalimido)-piperazine and Derivatives: A new Class of Bioactive Molecules with Enhanced Safety and Efficacies, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, (Accepted).
​47. ​B. Rafique, A. Khalid, K. Akhtar, M. Iqbal, Metronidazole interaction with DNA analyzed by electrochemical DNA biosensor, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic methods, Bioelectrochemistry, (under review)
​48. ​T. Mehmood, A. Naseem, M. Iqbal, M. M. Ahmad, Z. Fatima, Agrowaste and Underutilized Jatropha curcas Vegetable Seed Oil Use for Obtaining Maximal Process to get High Quality Yield of Biodiesel through Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Chiang Mai J Sci., (under review)
​49. ​M. A. Shaheen, M. Aziz, M. Saleem, M. Tahir, T. Mehmood, A. Karim, M. Iqbal, Synthesis and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) with Schiff Base Derived from 5-Aminosalicylic acid and o-Vanillin, J. Biolog inorg Chem. (submitted)

 

Conference proceedings: 

S/No ​Reference
​1. P. K. Mohapatra, D. R. Raut, V. K. Manchanda, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide for Am (III) extraction: solvent extraction and SLM transport studies, Proceedings of DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2011, 42, 292-293.
​2. ​P.K. Mohapatra, D.R. Raut, V.K. Manchanda, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Evaluation of a novel tripodal diglycolamide ligand for carrier free 90Y separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India), 2011, 479-80.
​3. ​S. A. Ansari, P.K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Novel Calix [4] arene Functionalized Diglycolamides for Separation of Actinides: Supported Liquid Membrane Studies, Procedia Engineering 2012, 44, 959-960.
​4. ​S. A. Ansari, P.K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Highly efficient binding to trivalent F-elements from acidic media with novel Calix[4]arene containing diglycolamide arms, Proceedings of DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2012, 44, 86.
​5. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W Verboom, Structurally modified diglycolamide-functionalized calixarenes in room temperature ionic liquid for actinide extraction, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2013, 44, 285-286.
​6. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, W Verboom, Actinide extraction using two novel task specific ionic liquids, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear and radiochemistry, 2013, 44, 283-284.
​7. ​A. Wilden, G. Modolo, S. Lange, F. Sadowski, D. Bosbach, B. B. Beele, P. J. Panak, A. Skerencak-Frech, A. Geist, M. Iqbal, W. Verboom, Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studie, American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60526, 2013, 1633.
​8. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Separation of lanthanides and actinides from simulated high level waste using diglycolamide-functionalized Calix[4]arene, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS fifth symposium on nuclear analytical chemistry, 2014, 418-419.
​9. ​A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Electrochemical study on the complexation of UO22+ with DGA-TSIL-Br in C8 mimBr, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2014, 175.
​10. ​A. Sengupta, M. S. Murali, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Electrochemical study on the complexation of UO22+ with DGA-TSIL-Br in C8 mimBr, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology, 2014, 175.
​11. ​A. Sengupta, P. K. Mohapatra, M. Iqbal, J. Huskens, W. Verboom, Study on Eu 3+-CDGA complex in room temperature ionic liquid, effects of media and structural modification of CDGA by fluorescence spectroscopy, Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS twelfth biennial Trombay symposium on radiation and photochemistry, 2014, 45, 70-71.

 

Poster presentations:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. Synthesis of New Potential Ligands for the Partitioning of Nuclear Waste, Chains Chemistry as Innovating science, 28-30 November 2011, DeFabrique, Maarssen, Netherlands.
​2. ​Development of novel ligands for complexing An(III)/ Ln(III) for nuclear waste treatment, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 27th, 2011. Enschede, Netherlands.
​3. ​On the way to selective ligands for An(III)/Ln(III) separation in nuclear waste, Design and Synthesis Structure and Reactivity Biomolecular Chemistry, NWO, Gebied Chemische Wetenschappen, October 25-27, 2010, Lunteren, Netherlands.
​4. ​On the way to selective ligands for An(III)/Ln(III) separation in nuclear waste, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 14, 2010, Enschede, Netherlands.
​5. ​Synthesis of Am3+Ligands for Nuclear Waste Treatment, Design and Synthesis Structure and Reactivity Biomolecular Chemistry, NWO, Gebied Chemische Wetenschappen, October 19-21, 2009, Lunteren, Netherlands.
​6. ​Synthesis of Am3+Ligands for Nuclear Waste Treatment, MESA+ annual meeting, sep, 21st, 2009, Enschede, Netherlands.

 

Oral presentation:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. Synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for nuclear waste treatment, Meeting Program of the KNCV "Organic Chemistry Division" and the NWO-CW study groups "Design & Synthesis", "Structure & Reactivity" and "Bio molecular Chemistry", April 7, 2010. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
​2.

Synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the partitioning of nuclear waste, Multivalency in Chemistry and Supramolecular Chemistry, MESA+ / SFB 765 Mini-Symposium, Freie University Berlin,  5th June, 2012, Berlin, Germany

 

Conferences/Symposiums/Workshops:

 

S/No ​Reference
​1. International Conference on Bio-Energy: “Bio-hydrogen, bio-methane as alternative fuel and its conversion inti CNG from waste water” August 26 -27, 2014, Organized by Government of Punjab, Umeed Foundation and PCSIR Labs. Lahore, LCCI at Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Lahore-Pakistan. (participant)
​2. ​One-Day Symposium titled “Green Chemistry: An Innovative Route to Sustainable Scientific Developments” April 30, 2014, Organized by Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. (participant and Organizering secretary)
​3. ​One-Day seminar “Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Chemistry, Recent Developments and Future Prospects”, March 20, 2013, Organized by Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. (participant)
​4. ​Workshop on "Biodiesel Technology: Processing, Potential Feedstock, Future Prospects and Challenges"  November 5-6, 2012, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)
​5. ​Workshop on “Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals for Development” November 20-21, 2007, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)
​6. Workshop on "Biodiesel Technology: Processing, Potential Feedstock, Future Prospects and Challenges"  November 5-6, 2012, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)​
​7. ​Workshop on “Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals for Development” November 20-21, 2007, Department of chemistry, University of Sargodha. (participant)​