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Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC)
Dr Muhammad Saeed Khalid
Associate Professor
Department of Naval Architecture

National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)
PNS Jauhar, Habib Ibrahim Rehmatullah Road,Karachi
Tel :  Cell:+92-333-622 3338

Marine Engineering

PhD Naval Architecture

Dr Muhammad Saeed Khalid has done his PhD (Naval Architecture & Marine Engg), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor -  USA,MSc (Naval Architecture), UCL, from London,Uk,BE (Mechanical) NED from karachi and BSc (Double Math Physics)  from B Z University.He has specialization in  Ship’s/ Submarine,Ship’s/ Submarine Maneuvering,Hydrodynamics (Calculation/estimation of loads on water born vessesl/structures), Rigid Body Dynamics (Calculation/estimation of motions in 6 DoF air/water born vessels),Mathematical Modeling/Computer Simulations. (Application of Radial basis functions for ship hydrodynamics and dynamics).Marine Structures (Stability & Dynamics of Ships, Submarines, Floating Docks and structure in general) andHydrogen Fuel Cell. 

Professional Courses

1.          Submarine Design (12 Weeks), UCL, London – UK
2.          Marine Engineering Specialization (48 Weeks), PNEC, Karachi – PAKISTAN
3.          Marine Engineering Propulsion Syetem Watch-keeping Certificate (1 Year) Pakistan
4.          NBCD/ Firefighting (2 Weeks), Karsaz, Karachi – Pakistan​
5.          JOSDC (6 Weeks), Karsaz, Karachi – Pakistan
6.          Trekking course (2 weeks) PMA Kakul - Pakistan 


1. Saudi Arabia, For Haj, 14/10 – 2/11/2012
2. Switzerland, To attend conference,  26-30/6/2012
3. UK, Part of NUST Delegation, 1–  6/7/2007
4. USA, For PhD studies, 16/6/2002 – 1/4/2007
5. UK, For MSc studies, 20/9/1996 – 23/12/1998
6. Holland, UK, Tunis, Saudi Arabia, 01 Month return cruise while bringing PNS Moawin to Pakistan.

Selected Projects/Thesis Supervised

1. PhD Thesis: Risk assessment modeling of heart disease using pattern recognition techniques and data mining. - In Process
2. Design and Modelling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 
3. Design and Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 
4. Harnessing Marine Energy by Vertical Axis Marine Turbines 
5. Harnessing Marine Energy by Horizontal Axis Marine Turbines 
6. Design of Container Ship 
7. Preliminary Design of Submarine
8. Design and Fabrication of Unwater Scooter


1. Workshop on Strategic Visions, 13-16/9/2014, Karachi -Pakistan
2. Workshop on Effective leadership through Character 19-20/9/2014, Karachi –Pakistan
3. Workshop on Stress management  27/9/2014, Karachi -Pakistan
4. International conference on “Impact of Nanoscience on Energy Technologies (NanoSET-14) 18-20/3/2014, COMSAT Lahore - Pakistan
5. Workshop on safety aspects 9/1/2014, Karachi -Pakistan
6. Syposium on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell 9-11//2012, Islamabad –Pakistan
7. 10th EUROPEAN SOFC FORUM 26-29/62012, Kultur- und Kongresszentrum Luzern – KKL Lucerne/ Switzerland
8. National conference on Quality of Resposible Education, 6/10/2012, Karachi –Pakistan
9. International conference on Corrosion management, 17/5/2012, Karachi –Pakistan
10. NI LabView Work shop 15-16/11/2010, Karachi –Pakistan
11. 4th International Mechanical Engineering Congress 24/1/2010, Karachi –Pakistan
12. HRM Mid Career Cousrse,  20/7/2009, Karachi -Pakistan
13. Workshop on Effective team work 9/8/2008, Karachi –Pakistan
  1. Radiation and Diffraction Velocity Potentials for Multi-Hulled Vessels in 2D - Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, November 2016, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 4573–4582 Muhammad Saeed Khalid, Salman Nisar, A W Troech – ABSTRACT - The blended approach has the potential to provide the engineering solutions for design optimization keeping in view the current demand of the extensive computer resources for fully nonlinear computations. This study investigates two-dimensional boundary value problem for multi-bodies radiation and diffraction velocity of multi-hulled vessels using blended method. In blended scheme, fully nonlinear Euler equations of motion are solved with nonlinear hydrodynamic forces acting on multi-hulled vessels. Lid is employed over the body segment to suppress the eigenvalue mode, thus eliminating singularities in source strength being used on multi-hull bodies presenting geometrical discontinuities. Comparison between the blended technique and its validation against analytical calculations and experimental work are presented and found in good agreement. It is concluded that blended technique is an efficient and accurate alternate method to provide time simulations of ship motion and other essential parameters for design optimization.
  2. Optimization of process parameters for machining of AISI-1045 steel using Taguchi design and ANOVA - Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 2015, Vol: 59, pp: 36-51. - Salman Nisar, Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT –  Previous published works on the optimization of parameters in orthogonal cutting process have used a single tool. The parameters considered in these works are: surface roughness, power consumption, deformed chip shape and temperature in the workpiece. This paper is on the optimization of machining parameters with multiple cutting tools. This is required to reduce the cutting forces and temperature while machining AISI 1045 steel. In this study, this has been achieved by using a combination of statistical tools including Taguchi matrix, signal to noise ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effects of varying cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and rake angle in orthogonal cutting process have been considered. The Finite Element (FE) simulations have been carried out with a general purpose commercial FE code, ABAQUS, and statistical calculations have been performed with Minitab. Results show that for optimum cutting forces, feed rate and depth of cut are the most important factors while for lower temperature, cutting speed and rake angle play a significant role. It is concluded that carbide cutting tools is a better option as compared to uncoated cemented carbide cutting tool for machining AISI 1045 steel as it results in lower cutting forces and temperatures.
  3. Optimization Of Injection Molding Process For Sink Marks Reduction By Integrating Response Surface Design Methodology & Taguchi Approach – Paper has been accepted in Journal of Quality and Technology Management(JQTM)  X category- Mustafa Jan, Muhammad Saeed KhalidAkbar Ali Awan, Salman Nisar  – ABSTRACT – The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated approach for improving the quality characteristics of the injection molded part (Honda Upper Part) being manufactured at manufacturing industry (Pakistan),  where the rejection rate for Honda upper part was on ramp due to sink marks defects. The proposed integrated approach embraces the concept of Design of Experiments (Taguchi Approach) and Response surface design methodology for injection molding process optimization. The Taguchi Method (TM) was used to short list the variables that have significant effects on the sink marks in injection molded parts. Furthermore, the optimization approach of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilized for the experimental research to acquire a prediction model that can be used to optimize injection molding process in terms of fine sink marks reduction. The  result shows that the sink marks reduction predicted by the integration of the Taguchi Method and RSM indeed decreased from 0.0088(Taguchi’s result)  down to  0.0080 mm. The empirical results reveal that the integration of the Taguchi Method and RSM could effectively improve the quality. Basically with these experiments, we tried to open the vision of manufacturers and designers regarding the application of integrated RSM/Taguchi approach using linear cum interaction regression model with selected parametric/levels setting for the dimensional accuracy of the injection molded part, and thus contributing towards improvement in process’s reliability. The integrated approach with regression model for optimization does not only provide theoretical worth to the literature and manufacturers/designers but can also be applied to different manufacturing industries for quality parts production.
  4. Highly efficient composite electrolyte for natural gas fed fuel cell - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 41, Issue 16, 4 May 2016, Pages 6972–6979 - Akhlaq AhmedRizwan Raza Muhammad Saeed Khalid and etal – ABSTRACT –  Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the ability to operate with different variants of hydro carbon fuel such as biogas, natural gas, methane, ethane, syngas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and any other hydrogen rich gas. Utilization of these fuels in SOFC, especially the natural gas, would significantly reduce operating cost and would enhance the viability for commercialization of FC technology. In this paper, the performance of two indigenously manufactured nanocomposite electrolytes; barium and samarium doped ceria (BSDC-carbonate); and lanthanum and samarium doped ceria (co-precipitation method LSDC-carbonate) using natural gas as fuel is discussed. The nanocomposite electrolytes were synthesized using co-precipitation and wet chemical methods (here after referred to as nano electrolytes). The structure and morphology of the nano electrolytes were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fuel cell performance (OCV) was tested at temperature (300–600 °C). The ionic conductivity of the nano electrolytes were measured by two probe DC method. The detailed composition analysis of nano electrolytes was performed with the help of Raman Spectroscopy. Electrochemical study has shown an ionic conductivity of 0.16 Scm−1 at 600 °C for BSDC-carbonate in hydrogen atmosphere, which is higher than conventional electrolytes SDC and GDC under same conditions. In this article reasonably good ionic conductivity of BSDC-carbonate, at 600 °C, has also been achieved in air atmosphere which is comparatively greater than the conventional SDC and GDC electrolytes.
  5. Numerical Flow Analysis And Heat Transfer In Smooth And Grooved Tubes  -  WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences Volume 105 Pages 163 – 174 Published 2016 - S. Jamshed, S. R. Qureshi, Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT – This paper discussed the heat transfer enhancement due to groove formation in a metallic tube. A set of three tubes, namely, the simple metallic tube (SMT), the straight groove tube (SGT) and the helically grooved tube with 12-inch pitch (GT12) were numerically studied. The tube data and experimental findings on it were extracted from published article by Arunrat. Performance criteria through CFD was based on the heat transfer via Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. For the heat transfer performance, it was evaluated with the thermal performance factor given by (Nu/Nus)/(f/fs), whereas Nu is the Nusselt number and f is the friction factor and subscript ‘s’ is for the smooth tube. Two turbulence models were used, viz, k-epsilon realizable and k-omega Shear Stress Transport. Between the two turbulence models tested and the given range of Reynolds number, it was found that k-ω SST is the most suitable candidate for this range of Reynolds number due to its closeness to the experimental data both in the case of the Nusselt and friction factor. Among the three tubes tested and making the simple metallic tube (SMT) the baseline, the GT12 performed better and has performance factor better than the other two at most of the Reynolds numbers.
  6. Fatigue Crack Growth Prediction On A310 aircraft wing using Static Analysis – Paper has been accepted in 14th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST) Islamabad, Pakistan, 10th - 14th January, 2017 -  Shahroz Habib, Waleed Bin Yousuf Dr.Tariq Mairaj and Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT - Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has been used in aviation industry to predict remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace structures. RUL knowledge enables aircraft maintenance managers to plan repair/replacement actions well in time thereby making flight operation safe with reduced downtimes. Different Model-based, Stochastic-based and Databased models are used for prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction [1]. In the aircraft lifespan, stresses are mainly originated during landing and take-off phases. Due to these stresses, the surface of an aircraft structure undergoes deformation, which leads to crack initiation and subsequent crack growth [2].The objective of the proposed research work is to predict the remaining useful life of A310 wing using linear elastic fracture mechanics based technique known as Paris Law. Paris Law offers the rate of damage growth with respect to number of loading cycles as each loading cycle comprises of takeoff, cruise and landing phases. Stresses subjected to aircraft wings during each loading cycle are required for RUL prediction using Paris law. These stresses are evaluated using finite element analysis of A310 aircraft wing. Actual historical NDT data of crack growth on counter-sunk rivet holes on A310 wing acquired from PIA NDT center is used to show the efficacy of the proposed RUL prediction methodology. The details of modeling and results will be presented in the conference.
  7. Harnessing Marine Energy by Horizontal Axis Marine Turbines - Proceedings of 2015 12th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST) 496 Islamabad, Pakistan, 13th - 17th January, 2015 -  Jawad Ali, Jawad Khan, Muhammad Saeed Khalid, and Nasir Mehmood – ABSTRACT - Almost 80% of World's energy needs are furnished through combustion of natural resources such as oil, natural gas and coal etc. A sprawling world population implies increased demand of the energy resources. Subsequently, there has been a hike in fuel prices. Unfortunately, the planet is left to bear the brunt in form of pollution. These factors have put forward a pressing demand of research for eco-friendly and renewable resources. In this domain, tidal energy offers a promising future. Tides are produced due to the interactive orbital mechanics of solar & planetary systems. Security, diversity of supply, intermittence and predictability are few of the compelling factors in pursuit of tidal power. Tidal energy comprises of both kinetic and potential energy. The tidal stream technologies include a horizontal axis turbine and a vertical axis turbine. This study is focused on horizontal axis turbines. The horizontal axis marine turbine operates on same principles as wind turbines. The energy transformation process is quite simple. The turbine rotor is driven by the tidal current. The motion of the rotor converts mechanical energy into rotational energy. Gear box transmits shaft's rotational energy to generator which converts this energy into electricity. Shroud/ ducts/ diffuser are used to improve the efficiency of the horizontal axis marine turbine. Shroud/ ducts/ diffuser deploy diffuser and hydrofoil principles to accelerate water streamline. Power generated is proportional to cube to steam velocity. This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive review of the horizontal axis marine turbines. The study will focus on history, techniques and technologies being deployed. The author also reports the current status of development efforts related to horizontal axis turbines.
  8. Overview of Impediments in the widespread usage of SOFC’s  - Proceedings of the Symposium on Hydrogen & Fuel Cells – (July 9-11, 2012 Quad-E-Azam University Islamabad) - Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT - Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the promising eco-friendly and efficient electricity generators for future energy infrastructure. There are certain impediments in the widespread usage of SOFC. Major disadvantage of fuel cell is the high operating temperature of 800 to 1000 degree centigrade. The material capable to bear such high temperature increase the cost of fuel cells tremendously. Another issue is the low fuel utilization factor which is limited to 60% to 85%. Fuel cell is fuel flexible as stable operation has been achieved on a variety of hydrocarbon fuels. However these cells typically reply on external fuel processing which add to the cost complexity of SOFC systems. Moreover, fuel cells can’t be used for small mobile applications due to their long start up time. The above mentioned barriers in the widespread usage of SOFCs would not only be highlighted in details in the presentation and full paper. Possible solutions to overcome some of the impediments would also be discussed. Thus the current research avenues in the field of SOFC would be explored.
  9. Evaluation of Onboard Ships active and passive electrochemical cathodic protection systems. A case study of Karachi Harbour Marine Vessels - TECHNOCRAT The PNEC Magazine Volume V December 2015 - Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT – Electrochemical Cathodic Protection is a useful technique for marine vessels preservation against highly corrosive marine conditions. Shoddy preservation of Karachi harbor ships was being reported very frequently due to failure of electrochemical cathodic protection (ECCP) systems owning to erroneous voltage output from reference electrode in ECCP system or malfunctioning of auxiliary / sacrificial anodes. This frequent failure necessitates docking of the ship, which hampers the operability of ship. This paper deals with the issue and establishes root causes of issue which are, absence of AgCl protective coating disc on electrode, breaching in insulations of electrodes and their leads, loose / non secured junction box connections. The results of this study are helpful to rectify and prevent the malfunctioning of electrochemical cathodic protection techniques.
  10. University Industry Linkage - TECHNOCRAT The PNEC Magazine Volume V December 2015 - Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT – The global economy and military are increasingly becoming more dependent on technological or innovation-based strengths. Universities can contribute towards producing innovation through technology transfer. This potential of universities has resulted in an increased focus on links between industry and academic institutions. Such interaction between the industry and university leads to considerable diffusion of scientific and technical knowledge. However greater mutual understanding is required for the proactive role that the university can play in the development of strong industrial base. In the developed world, governments are well aware of the importance of universities as strategic actors in both national and regional economic development. That is why enabling mechanisms for the meaningful linkage do exist in the developed world. The enabling mechanisms include government policies encouraging the linkage and consortia/forums where industry and university communicate and understand needs of each other in moving forward together.
  11. A New Method for Extracting Ocean Wave Energy Utilizing the Wave Shoaling Phenomenon - Journal of World Academy of Scince and Technology Journal issue 72, Pages 792-798, 2010 - Shafiq R. Qureshi, Syed Noman Danishand Muhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT – Fossil fuels are the major source to meet the world energy requirements but its rapidly diminishing rate and adverse effects on our ecological system are of major concern. Renewable energy utilization is the need of time to meet the future challenges. Ocean energy is the one of these promising energy resources. Threefourths of the earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. This enormous energy resource is contained in the oceans’ waters, the air above the oceans, and the land beneath them. The renewable energy source of ocean mainly is contained in waves, ocean current and offshore solar energy.  Very fewer efforts have been made to harness this reliable and predictable resource. Harnessing of ocean energy needs detail knowledge of underlying mathematical governing equation and their analysis.  With the advent of extra ordinary computational resources it is now possible to predict the wave climatology in lab simulation. Several techniques have been developed mostly stem from numerical analysis of Navier Stokes equations.  This paper presents a brief over view of such mathematical model and tools to understand and analyze the wave climatology.  Models of 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations have been developed to estimate the wave characteristics to assess the power potential.  A brief overview of available wave energy technologies is also given. A novel concept of on-shore wave energy extraction method is also presented at the end.  The concept is based upon total energy conservation, where energy of wave is transferred to the flexible converter to increase its kinetic energy. Squeezing action by the external pressure on the converter body results in increase velocities at discharge section. High velocity head then can be used for energy storage or for direct utility of power generation. This converter utilizes the both potential and kinetic energy of the waves and designed for on-shore or near-shore application.  Increased wave height at the shore due to shoaling effects increases the potential energy of the waves which is converted to renewable energy.   This approach will result in economic wave energy converter due to near shore installation and more dense waves due to shoaling. Method will be more efficient because of tapping both potential and kinetic energy of the waves.
  12. Potential of Ocean Energy – Existing Devices and a Novel Approach - International Conference on Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications (ICREGA’10), UAE, 8-10th March, 2010 - Shafiq R. Qureshi, Syed Noman Danishand Muhammad SaeedKhalid – ABSTRACT – World 80% energy is being met from the fossil fuels; however its depleting resources and adverse effects on our ecological system are of major concern.  Need of green energy cannot be further overemphasized to meet the future challenges. Ocean energy is the one of these promising energy resources. Three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. This enormous energy resource is contained in the oceans’ waters, the air above the oceans, and the land beneath them. The renewable energy source of ocean mainly is contained in waves, ocean current and offshore solar energy. Pakistan is heavily dependent on fossil fuel for energy needs. It has recently started exploring renewable energy, which mainly include wind and solar energy.  However, it has coastal line of approximately 1000 kilometers which carry a huge the potential of ocean energy.  Very fewer efforts have been made to harness this reliable and predictable resource.  This paper presents a brief over view of mathematical models for wave climate prediction and available wave energy technologies.  A novel concept of on-shore wave energy extraction method is also presented at the end.
  13. Towards Harnessing  ocean Energy - international Mechanical Engineering Congress, Karachi Friday 23rd & Saturday 4th January 2009Shafiq R. Qureshi,  Muhammad Saeed Khalid,  Khan W. A   – ABSTRACT – A case study  exploring the avenue of renewable energy in Pakistan. A comparison with present trends in world for energy management and resources harnessing is presented in this paper.
  14. An Investigation to Harness Ocean Energy to Address the Energy Crisis - The International Workshop on Advanced Material for New and Renewable Energy (AMNRE) 2009 Jakarta Indonesia, 9-11 June 2009 - Shafiq R. QureshiQaisar AliMuhammad Saeed Khalid – ABSTRACT – World 80% energy is being met from the fossil fuels; however its depleting resources and adverse effects on our ecological system are of major concern.  Need of green energy can not be further overemphasized to meet the future challenges. Pakistan is also heavily dependent on fossil fuel for energy needs. It has recently started exploring renewable energy, which mainly include wind and solar energy.  However, it has coastal line of approximately 1000 kilometers which carry a huge the potential of ocean energy. Very fewer efforts have been made to harness this resource.   It is a promising form of renewable energy because of the cyclic, reliable and predictable nature. Likewise other country in world about 20 % percent of the country’s energy need can easily be met from ocean energy. This paper provides a review of available technology to harness this resource of energy and the details of the investigations carried out to explore the potential of energy at different locations of Pakistan Coastal lines. A brief view of a conceptual design to harness the ocean energy will also be given.
  15. Academia – Industry Interaction, Achievements and Impediments - Proceedings of 1st Naval Engineering Confrence 31st Dec 2008 – 1st Jan 2009 - Muhammad Saeed Khalid, Muhammad Junaid – ABSTRACT – Academia-Industry nexus is emerging as vital areas for achieving significant technological, economical and industrial growth. However, like any institutional coalition, the true potential of academia-industry relationship cannot be exploited without adequately addressing our country specific issues. In this paper, we will propose a way forward to achieve optimum synergy. We provide the services of academia as an extension of industry. We will discuss the present state of interaction between the academic institutions and the industry and identify the grey areas. Subsequently, the achievements expected out of our proposed framework will be discussed along with the solution to expected future impediments.
  16. A methodology for creating design ship responses - 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and other Floating Structures, PRADS 2007,  Pages477-486, Volume1, Laura K. Alford ; Muhammed Saeed Khalid,  DaeHyun Kim ; Kevin Maki ; Armin W. Troesch – ABSTRACT – Historically, ships' structures are designed for conservative load conditions. In many cases, the designed loads are optimized based on hydrostatics and linear wave loads with an applied factor of safety. Design methods are evolving to include advanced nonlinear hydrodynamics sea keeping codes. Computationally, these efforts are expensive. Sometimes, the practical use of these state-of-the-art programmes is found to be difficult. In this paper, random response-tailored wave trains are created for use in numerical simulations. Random wave trains generated by finite number of components are tailored to produce a specified linear large response by considering the statistical distribution of the response phases in the neighborhood of a typical maximum loading condition. Using a non-uniform distribution of the random phases, design wave elevations leading to extreme design loads may be calculated using linear theory and used as input to nonlinear sea keeping codes. The structural analysis and the hydrodynamics of the design loads are then brought together. The radiation and diffraction pressures are modeled as quasinonlinear, while the hydrostatic and Froude-Krylov pressures are body exact and fully nonlinear. The quasinonlinear radiation and diffraction pressures are estimated without solving the boundary value problems recursively. Instead, an appropriate radial basis function is used for the estimation of the quasi-nonlinear radiation and diffraction pressures corresponding to the exact instantaneous position of the body. Then the quantities of interest like kinematics and structural loads are calculated by direct integration of these pressures. A probabilistic analysis for vertical and lateral bending moments will be presented for a typical mono hull tanker in Sea State 7. The critical load conditions are evaluated using linear calculations first and then short time simulations are conducted using a blended nonlinear sea keeping computer programme.


  1. Investigation on Trimaran Ship’s Box Under Transverse Load (MS Thesis)  – ABSTRACT – The research comprises of investigations about shear and bending stresses in Trimaran ship’s box and beams under transverse load, by doing finites element analysis, using I-DEAS software. In the light of present research a procedure is proposed to the future Trimaran structural designer. To avoid the FE analysis during the initial phase of each ship design, a correlation is established for the prediction of effective breadth of deck and bottom plating of the Trimaran ship’s box. This effective breadth correlation will enable the use of simple bending beam theory on Trimaran box for predicting the right stresses while catering for the shear lag effect. A validation of this correlation is also presented, the research is culminated by interesting work on damaged Trimaran ship beam.
  2. Simulation of Euler-Equations of Motion and Blended- Non-linear Hydrodynamics for Multi-Hulled Vessels (PhD Thesis) – ABSTRACT –  The focus of the research is the evaluation of dynamic and static pressures acting on floating bodies. Specifically, these pressures result from large motions of a multi hull ship in six degrees of freedom. The components of the dynamic-pressure are radiation, diffraction, and the Froude-Kriloff pressures. Evaluation of instantaneous radiation and diffraction problems is always computationally expensive. Previously, many sea-keeping analyses do not solve for the diffraction pressures explicitly. A blended scheme is presented here for the evaluation of total hydrodynamic pressure. The method employs quasi-nonlinear radiation and diffraction models, and body exact hydrostatic and Froude-Kriloff pressures. The quasi-nonlinear radiation and diffraction pressures are estimated without solving the boundary-value problems recursively, instead using a radial-basis function. The method is equally applicable to regular and irregular seas, in frequency and time domains. Direct integration of these pressures results in nonlinear displacements, other kinematics and the structural loads in terms of dynamic shear forces, bending and torsion moments in 6DOF. The nodal pressures are in an appropriate format for use in commercial software such as MAESTRO or other FEM based design tools. Nonlinearities arise from Euler angles, large motions and the exact instantaneous intersection of the body and free surface. For the forward speed corrections, ∂ ∂x is calculated by converting the two dimensional velocity-potential into a three-dimensional mathematical function via radial-basis functions. To restore two-dimensional characteristics of the boundary value solution, a backward conversion to two-dimensions is performed. Good agreement is found between the blended method and experimental data for radiation and wave loads on a steadily moving vessel. To demonstrate the use fulness of the method, capsize basins and parametric-roll studies were conducted. It is demonstrated that resonating roll excitation occurs for the given parametric conditions. This thesis presents the first use of radial-basis functions for estimation of quasi-nonlinear radiation and diffraction pressures and their conversion between two and three dimensions, as a result significant savings in computation-time are realized.

Research Experience/Projects:

1.  PK S3 – Summary – This is a secret/confidential study therefore summary/detailed cannot be elaborated here.

2. Study report repair and  upkeep marine structures – Summary  Marine infrastructure is costly to build and requires regular condition monitoring to assess deterioration due exposure to harsh marine environment. Marine environment and intense service conditions cause accelerated wear & tear, aging and fatigue which may lead to structural failure and it often goes undetected especially in underwater structures. Most of the repairs carried out in past have been based on corrective maintenance approach.  Marine civil infrastructure of PN Dockyard is almost 60 years old and requires rehabilitation to restore original design capacity. Remaining PN marine infrastructure in other coastal areas does not have an established mechanism for effective condition monitoring.

3. Replacement study of existing CPP oil cooler (Cu-Ni 90/10) with alternate material – Summary – From decades, copper-nickel alloy Cu-Ni 90/10 (UNS C70600) has extensively been used as a piping material for seawater systems in shipbuilding, offshore, and desalination industries. The alloy has excellent resistance to general corrosion, high resistance to localized corrosion in chlorinated seawater, and superior erosion resistance than other copper alloys and steel. Moreover, Cu-Ni 90/10 is resistant to biofouling and providing various economic benefits as well. In spite of the appropriate properties of the alloy, instances of failure have also been reported in the captioned application. Mostly the reasons are attributed to the inaccurate composition and/or production of Cu-Ni 90/10 products and use of polluted waters. Cu-Ni 70/30 is one the most reliable option for the application but the high cost and rare availability of tubing made up of the alloy entail the option impractical for implementation in PN. Following is recommended for resolving the issue of high defect rate in Cu-Ni 90/10 tubing:

a.         Sea Cure tubing may be used as alternate for condensers and heat exchangers due to its high corrosion resistance and cost effectiveness.

b.         Following standard preventive practices are recommended to be implemented for Cu-Ni alloys tubes.

(1).      Ensure formation of copper oxide layer using fresh sea water with recommended procedure in Para 6a during commissioning/ installation of Cu-Ni piping/ tubing.

(2).      Use of FeSOsolution while operating under polluted sea water.

(3).      Sacrificial anodes be replaced on priority to control the corrosion rate of Cu-Ni 90/10 tubing.

(4).      Alternatively, Epoxy coating (75 microns thickness) on Cu-Ni 90/10 tubes be applied for prevention from corrosion preferably at time of commissioning

4. Corrosion Action Plan-Alteration order onboard Agosta90B and Agosta70 submarine – Summary – A study was conducted to propose additional Zink Anode installation of Agosta 70 Submarines,  in line with additional  Zink Anodes added onboard Agosta 90 B Submarines. Historically, same scheme of zink Anode was exercised on Agosta 70 and Agosta 90 Submarines. However due to difference in exhaust piping material and elongation of hull because of retrofitting of MESMA module, additional Zink Anodes were proposed by DCN for Agosta 90B Submairne. In this study, calculations were carried out to estimate the Zink Anode requirement 0f 756.5 kg on Agosta 70 Submarine. It was found that even after installation of additional Zink anodes as new scheme of Agosta 90b, the total mass of Zink is remains below the calculated mass, and therefore installation of additional Zink Anodes is harmless.

5.  Evaluation Of Industrial Setup of PN Dockyard – Summary – PN Dockyard over a period of time has experienced lateral expansion. This expansion is attributed to association of various roles i.e. construction of missile crafts, small surface vessels and submarines during last two decades. These activities provided a spectrum of opportunities as well as a number of challenges. However there is a general hypothesis that Human Resource Development (HRD) of PN Dockyard has remained out of sync with these technological developments. Because of lagging in HRD, the industrial practices of PN Dockyard also remained undeveloped as compare to contemporary industrial practices in the yards worldwide. NHQs asked to evaluate and suggest an optimal path to improve the industrial setup of PN Dockyard. There is a huge potential for waste elimination and lean practices in PND. All the manufacturing processes in PND need value analysis and necessary modification must be made to reduce scrap, reduce manufacturing cost, improve manufacturing practices and reduce lead times. Method studies should be undertaken at PND on continuous basis. PND should follow global standards in shipbuilding, repair & maintenance industry and benchmark the best in order to tailor its system accordingly. PND should undertake employee based productivity by providing training and development opportunities, giving financial incentives, benefits to all tiers of employs. Other considerations like soft loans, financial assistance programmes, empowerment of employees and higher education incentives must also be considered. Regular courses educational/ vocational courses from institutes in local market may be considered to enhance knowledge base and to give incentive for the new entrants. To accrue maximum benefits from the existing potential within PND, in other units of PN and from outside PN Sources (both local and foreign); a specialist setup headed by a GM Industrial and HR development may prove very beneficial for industrial development of PND.

6.  Marine corrosion and its prevention in PN – Summary - A comprehensive study encompassing all the facets and factors associated to marine corrosion and its prevention in Pakistan Navy was carried. In this study, the refit data of PN ships and submarine was analyzed to establish the root cause and attributing factors for corrosion on PN platforms. Performance of different protection systems such as ICCP (Impressed Current Cathodic Protection), Zinc Sacrificial Anode and paint coatings were also evaluated for Dockyard. The recommendations of the study were implemented in PN field units. Separate dedicated departments should be formed in Karachi and in JNB named “Harbour Works Department”, under GM (S&S) in dockyard and under CSG in JNB to look after marine infrastructures of PN. Rep of all stake holders should be involved in contract negotiations/finalization of contract. The newly inducted Civil engineers may also be sent for familiarization courses of MES from MES school of Risalpur. A centralized record keeping office should be established in the proposed dedicated “Harbour Works Department”. Another copy of these documents are to be kept in respective HQs in the office of SO (civil works). “Visual Inspections” of marine infrastructures may be performed by the team of proposed “Harbour Works Department” with the coordination of actual operator of the infrastructure/facility Local consultant/firm may also be hired through MES for small repair/maintenance works if required (as a result of visual inspections). Detailed above water inspection/survey, underwater detailed inspection/survey and refurbishment works (as outcome of detailed inspection/survey) are to be undertaken as a “special project” through MES by open tendering process as per PPRA, PEC and MES rules and regulations. Contract (related to marine related special projects) should be awarded to local firm/contractor in collaboration with a re-known foreign firm as a joint venture.The Selection process of the firm may be as per PPRA rule following preferably (Quality Based Selection-QBS method) or at least (Quality & Cost Based Selection-QCBS method)

7. Hull Structural Defect Investigation On MBs/FPBs – ICCP – Summary – FREC was approached to undertake the verification of ICCP system onboard MBs/FPBs. A team of following members was constituted to verify ICCP system onboard MBs/FPBs. ICCP system is constituted of eight anodes and two sensing electrodes. Anodes are fitted as group of two, fitted in fwd and aft regions of port and stbd sides of the boats. The two sensing electrodes are fitted near the keel around midship. Anodes are connected with the DC supply. The shaft is also maintained at similar potential with hull using a slip-ring connection. The whole system ensures that the hull is maintained at the negative polarity (cathodic), thereby making it nobler as compared to the anodes. The cathodic role of the ship’s hull protects hull from electrochemical corrosion. In case of correct working of the system, the potential measured at the sensing electrode is within a range of -0.75V to -0.85V. Other than the ICCP system, the rudder is also fitted with sacrificial Zinc anodes. Anodes and sensing electrodes are displayed in figure 1a and 1b respectively. The short circuiting of anode(s) entails the ICCP system ineffective and counter-productive. Such situation warrants immediate intervention through raising OPDEFs by the ship for ensuring isolation and subsequent replacement of short circuited anode. Recurring failure of defective anodes attributes to poor insulation of used material. The doublers used in the repair of hull made up of different material than hull’s material also initiate electrochemical corrosion.

8.  Effect Of Chemical Pollutants On Seawater Systems– Summary – The study report includes the present status of sea water system onboard PN ships. This is followed by corrosion-erosion phenomenon in the sea water systems fitted onboard PN ships. Then, the possible solutions to mitigate corrosion/erosion are discussed. Finally the conclusion and recommendation are given Galvanic coupling due to bi-metallic junctions is the main source of electrochemical corrosion. The galvanic coupling caused due to difference in nobility of joining metals. This phenomenon is even possible in same metal material due to in-homogeneity (impurities).  To induce the insulation between the bi-mettalic junctions, the critical elements such as strainer and/or piping are required to be replaced with the non-metallic ones as being adopted in modern merchant shipping. The damage of grating and strainer causes the fouling (especially polythene bags)  which results in the failure of sea water system.  Periodic injection of disinfectant chemicals (such as chorine) in seawater system may be effective against marine fouling organisms.

9.  Hangars Modification onboard PNS Alamgir for Parking of Seaking Helicopter – Summary – PNS ALAMGIR is installed with two hangars and a single Flight Deck. Both hangars are suitable to embark PN Z9-EC and Allouette helicopters. PN Sea King Helicopters however, can only land and take off from the ship but cannot be accommodated in hangar due to the space constraints. PNS ALAMGIR Hangar modification study was initiated by HQ COMPAK in order to achieve the capability to embark Sea King helicopter. This study is focused to propose an economic, easy but practicable option for safe parking of Sea King helo onboard ship. A viable concept for modifying PNS ALAMGIR to house Sea King helicopter is covered in this study.  Achieving acceptable capability level (operational flexibility) with minimum possible time, least cost and maximum indigenous efforts have been the guiding principles for the study. Cool but “gigantic in terms of cost and scope of work” options were thus ruled out in favor of the viable option (Modifying Port Hangar with relocating its starboard bulkhead). Adopted “viable option” involves least modifications to ship’s structure, still providing acceptable space for safe parking of Sea King helicopter in the hangar.

10. Technical Evaluation Of Refurbished Aft Planes Bushes approach – Summary - The re-work methodology is not supported as the bush’s original material composition and properties are not taken into account while formulation of rework methodology. However, the attenuation of ultrasonic signal has not been changed after  re-work, whereas the change in velocity is of order within 10%. The exact relationship between the ultrasonic directly measured parameters (velocity and attenuation) with material properties (hardness, toughness and tensile strength) is generally non-linear. The relationship varies from material to material. Since the material composition of subject bush has not been provided to PNEC-FREC study team. Therefore it is extremely difficult for the team to determine the exact changes in the physical properties of bush caused due to 10% change in ultrasonic velocity.   Moreover, stress analysis on the subject bush before and after re-work is also not possible due to unknown material composition. Nevertheless, it is envisaged that 10% change in UT velocity and no change in UT attenuation do not significantly affect the physical properties of subject bush.

11.  Detailed SOP for the refit of FD-4 using the pontoon self-docking approach – Summary - Floating structures are required to be docked, surveyed, repaired and preserved every four to six years to ensure seaworthiness, operational availability and risk management. However due to non-availability of requisite docking facilities and expertise, Floating Dock-IV (FD-IV) is a huge structure weighing about 6000 tons with dimension 170m length, 30m width 50m depth. The dock was never given major scheduled maintenance or refit since lowered in water in year 1994. The Faculty member carried out a detailed calculations to propose tangible solution to undertake the long refit of the floating dock. The structural strength and hydrostatics of the dock were assessed mathematically using indigenous programming and modeling to ensure the safe operation of removal and installation of pontoons. The efforts of the officer gave confidence to the PN authorities regarding safe removal of pontoons and its docking in the same floating dock (FD-IV). This is a kind of operation which was carried out first time in the history of Pakistan.

12.  Design Modification to Address Critical Speed bands- PNS NASR – Summary - Presently, the hull structure of PNS NASR is vibrating in three speed bands (52 - 58 RPM, 82, 88 RPM and 106 - 110 RPM) of the main shaft. The structure is experiencing vertical vibration at these speed bands. The resonating frequencies of the hull structure are strongly dependent on ship's displacement and structural weight distribution as well as her cargo weight distribution. Generally change in the resonating frequency bands of ship's hull structure is near to impossible. However, in case of oil tanker like PNS NASR, considerable weight distribution is due to her liquid cargo. Therefore, the solution to the existing problem lies in defining loading regime of the cargo fluid to avoid the bands of resonating vibrations. In the study, a mathematical model is formulated to compute characteristic vibrational frequency of PNS NASR at different loading configurations. A sea trip is then planned to validate the finding of the mathematical model. The MATLAB software’s finding was validated during the sea trip. When compared to the previous record, there are no vibrations in 3rd critical bands at Fox’l and bridge top. The vibration is mitigated by ~90% of its original value, on Fox'l and bridge top (in the 1st critical band) and CIWS deck (in third critical bands).  The solution of the problem lies in maintaining appropriate cargo loading in Fuel/oil tanks. Whenever, the cargo fuel level falls below 60% of the full capacity, all the ballast tanks must be filled uniformly with ~3600 tons of sea water. The proposed regime is simple and straight forward and does not require complex software intervention. The salient characteristics of the proposed regime are as appended below:

a.            Giving ship staff freedom to maintain any liquid cargo loading configuration in all fuel oil tanks.

b.            Controlling the loading regime by varying seawater in the ballast tanks.

13.  Mathematical Modeling, Programming Coding And Hardware Integration Of Submarine Diving Simulator (SIMDAS) – Summary - The purpose of this simulator is to train the submarine staff in a shore based real time environment.  This project actually demanded the verbatim copy of submarine systems involved in surface, snorkeling and diving operations. Due to the intricacies involved, none of the ordinary local or foreign company was willing to undertake the task. French company DCNS was approached for the same for which an amount of 2 million Euros (240 Million PKR) were asked.  The project was contracted to PMO at cost of 16 Million rupees. PMO soon realized high cost involved in getting the mathematical model/software from DCNS. Consequently, PMO adopted hit & trial method of interpolation from about 1325 submarine maneuvers involving 900 dives to maximum depth. Owing to safety concerns and extreme hull fatigues, Pakistan Navy rightly showed reluctance to provide requisite data and the project almost became stalled. The Faculty member with his professional excellence and sound academic background took up the challenging task of designing the mathematical model and software of submarine diving simulator.  He successfully accomplished the task in a time frame of five months.  Then he continued to help PMO in interfacing the mathematical model and software with the hardware until successful culmination of the project. Mathematical model is complex in nature being six degrees of freedom - involving six coupled 2nd order nonlinear differential equation for rigid body motions in fluid.  The effecting hydrodynamic forces are obtained from three different boundary value problems (BVPs). The analytical solution of the model and two of the BVPs do not exist in mathematical world and therefore solution was calculated by using numerical and computing techniques. The numerical techniques were implemented in FORTRAN language. To facilitate the validations and demonstrations, a visual graphic interface was developed in C-Sharp language to domnstrate and validate the mathematical before putting into actual hardware.. The same was demonstrated to concerned stake holders. In the last stages the manufacturer of hardware was also assisted for integration of hardware and software by doing microcontroller programming.

14. Mathematical modeling, programming of simulator for Z-9 helicopter – Summary - Similar to SIMDAS initial work for simulator of Z-9 Helicopter was done demonstrated to COMLOG. Presently, the flight simulator of this Air Craft has not been developed by any one. Simulator of earlier version of this Air Craft is available with France and the training charges are $8000 per hour for one person. Cost of the simulator itself is unknown but it should be exorbitant.

15. Impact Testing Of Submarine Safety Net Boom – Summary – In PNEC, Charpy V-Notch impact tester is available which is generally used for impact testing of steel. When the specimen from the boom was put under Charpy V-Notch tester, the noticed energy absorption was negligible. Then against the prescribed procedure the complete safety boom was put under the same tester and a considerable absorbed energy was noticed. However, same is not considered accurate due to the reason that the pendulum failed to pass through the ruptured boom resulting in absorption of all the available energy of the pendulum. Finally, a drop test was conducted from a known height where the safety boom for submarine withstood the impact energy of 300 joules without any rupture or compression. The absorption of 300 joules energy means the boom can withstand the impact resulting from a boat weighing 2400 Kg and moving with speed of about 1 knot. Since after the drop test, there was no rupturing or compression in the boom, which means, the boom is capable of absorbing more energy but in PNEC there is no means to verify/quantify the same.

16.  Assisting KRL in implementation of ships handling simulator for ND school PNS BAHADUR – Summary - A consultancy was given to KRL team for static, dynamic stability and maneuvering of ship’s model being made for ND School PNS BAHADUR through DGITD.

17.  Design of Floating Jetty for PNS RAHBAR & HIMALAYA – Summary - A design and feasibility was presented to COMKAR for fabrication of floating jetty particularly for PNS RAHBAR and HIMALYA.

18. Feasibility study of break water for PNS RAHBER – Summary - A detailed study was carried out to propose the solution for boat securing and operating during monsoons.

19. Study for functional replacement of controls of portal cranes – Summary - A study was carried out and proposals were made for upgrading the controls of non-functional portal cranes of PN Dockyard.

Dr Muhammad Saeed Khalid's teaching includes;

  1. Naval Architecture & Ship Stability
  2. Fluid Mechanics
  3. Control Engineering
  4. Mechanics of Solids
  5. Statics and rigid body Dynamics
  6. Development of Syllabus BE – Naval Architecture 
  7. Development of Syllabus MS – Naval Architecture 
  8. Development of Syllabus BS – Operational Research ​


  1. Dean of  Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, NUST, PNEC, - Present Appointment
  2. Director Platform Design MTC/NESCOM 9/2016 – 01/2018
  3. Dean of  Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, NUST, PNEC, 3/2012 - 9/2016
  4. Director R&D NUST, PNEC 3/2007-9/2012
  5. PhD Studies UoM Ann Arbor USA 6/2002-2/20076.SO(NC)-
  6. Design Engineering in Design office NHQs 6/2000/6/2002
  7. Deputy Manager Hull and Structure PN Dockyard 1/1999- 6/2000
  8. MSc Studies UCL, London UK 9/1996-9/1998
  9. Submarine Design Course, UCL, London UK 9/1998-12/1998
  10. Marine Engineering Specialization course, PNEC, Karachi Pakistan 1995-1996
  11. Trainee Marine Engineer (Watch keeping) 1994-1995​